Suspected case: Any child under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis or any person with paralytic illness at any age in whom the clinician suspects poliomyelitis.
Confirmed case: A suspected case with virus isolation in stool.
Suspected case: Illness with onset of fever and no response to usual causes of fever in the area, and at least one of the following signs: bloody diarrhoea, bleeding from gums, bleeding into skin (purpura), bleeding into eyes and urine.
Confirmed case: A suspected case with laboratory confirmation (positive IgM antibody, positive PCR or viral isolation), or epidemiologic link to confirmed cases or outbreak.
Suspected case: A person with diarrhoea with visible blood in stool.
Confirmed case: Suspected case with stool culture positive for Shigella dysenteriae type 1.
Suspected case: Acute onset of fever of less than 3 weeks duration in a severely ill patient AND any 2 of the following; haemorrhagic or purpuric rash; epistaxis (nose bleed); haematemesis (blood in vomit); haemoptysis (blood in sputum); blood in stool; other haemorrhagic symptoms and no known predisposing factors for haemorrhagic manifestations.